Our Complete List Of Print-Ready Photoshop PDFs (2023)

Below is our complete list of Photoshop tutorials now available as PDFs. More added regularly!


"WOW. Being a new user of Photoshop, I have spent large amounts of time on other sites and have struggled, struggled, struggled to get my hands around Photoshop. After following though several of your tutorials it is starting to come together. This site is the best I have run across for learning the program. Many thanks." - Stanley J

"I have to say, having looked at much content on line, that your method of instruction is pretty much the best I have come upon on any topic at all. You do that one thing that is the hallmark of good instructions: you make no assumptions as to the skill level of who you are giving those instructions to such that anyone, no matter what their skill level can either read every word or just the bits they need reminding of. It is a great credit to you." - Nick

"I just finished reading 'Understanding Layer Masks In Photoshop" and I wanted to extend my thanks to your hard work. I found the article tremendously helpful and very informative. I appreciate that you explained and demonstrated the different effects of using the eraser tool and layer mask. I also found the subtle humor very amusing. Overall, thank you so much for posting the awesome article!!!" - Justin

"I just want to say thank you. Steve Patterson explained how to create snow and it was the easiest explanation I have ever followed. I have such a hard time with Photoshop and this article was so helpful." - Kelly M.

"I just wanted to tell you that your Photoshop Customizable Tool Bar tutorial is one of the best tutorials I've ever read. Very clear, very demonstrative, very unintimidating, and very helpful! I will be looking at more tutorials on your site from now on. Thanks much!" - Charlotte S.

"Steve, these tutorials are the Bee's Knees! I have literally dozens of tutorials, tutorial sites, plug-ins, and the like. Since finding and downloading your pdf-based tutorials I find myself repeatedly turning to your materials for quick-but-comprehensive tips. Thanks for the effort. And, thanks to your writing instructors over the years who must have drummed clear, simple English language writing into your head. It worked!" - Robert A.

"Thank you, thank you, THANK YOU!!!!
Your tutorials for Photoshop are absolutely the best I have seen anywhere, and I have tried to follow countless books, articles and other online help sites. Your directions are clear, easy to follow, and completely accurate. It is such a pleasure learning how to do different things in a way that does not leave me totally frustrated and ready to give up and go to bed!! I just wanted to let you know how much your tutorials are appreciated!!" - Colleen H.

"Thanks so much for your Creating Photo Borders In Photoshop With Masks And Filters tutorial. I tried it right away with one of my own tifs and it worked great." - Bettyann A.

(Video) How to Make Print Ready Files in Photoshop CC | instantprint

"Hi guys im Sara from Iran. I always liked to learn Photoshop tricks but there wasn't an expert to learn it so I searched on the net and found your site. I should say it's extremely amazing for me. I adore you and just want to say thank you for showing me right way and sorry if im not ok in english :)" - Sarah R.

"Your website is just amazing, it helped me a lot with a photo that I needed to edit so I owe you a big thank you. Keep up with the good work!" - P.

"Superb tutorials - finally know how to use the Magic Lasso Tool effectively! Many Thanks!" - Maurice C.

"I just wanted to say thank you for your tutorials. They are awesome and a big help with photoshop 😀 THANK YOU from Hawaii!!!" - Dee K.

"Just a quick note to let you know that I love, love, love the tutorials. I found them because I was looking for info on how to use the pen tool - a tool which, given that I am a freaking Professional Illustrator and all, cannot BELIEVE I avoided for so long. I am now in the mental penalty box feeling much shame. I also now realize there's like a million other things I have failed to learn about the program I use every day." - Emily F.

"Your site is truly the best! Period! Before I really did not know how to use Photoshop and now I have become obsessed with it!!!! Thanks so much for your wonderful step by step instructions!!" - Brandi A.

"Just had to write and say Thank You for the wonderful tutorials written by Steve Patterson. They have opened up a whole new way of scrapbooking for me." - Katherine

"Just a quick message to say your tutorial on the Pen Tool has really helped me out with something I have struggled with for ages. Keep up the great work!" - Rich M.

"I've found your tutorials to be very helpful and enjoy your step-by-step humorous approach to teaching Photoshop for beginners!" - Jane

(Video) CREATING PRINT READY PDF FILES | Design Basics Episode 9

"I'm extremely new to Photoshop and use your tutorials often. They are very well explained and well done!" - Justin

"I just want to commend you for a great tutorial website! Of all the sites I have been to, this is the best! Steve does not assume you have experience, which is wonderful. WELL DONE!" - Kizzi B.

"I've learned a lot since joining your site! I could not even spell Photoshop CS3 before you!" - Michael P.

"Thanks so much for this wonderful site! I recently joined as a member and have been greatly impressed at how easy it is for an absolute beginner like me to follow along!" - Michael H.

"Your article on Blending Modes was written really well and taught me a lot! I've been using these for awhile now with no earthly clue about the functionality. I simply used them visually, but now I have an arsenal of knowledge that I can use to better apply these modes, and I really appreciate that you helped me out with that." - Sarah S.

"I have just discovered your site, and wanted to say a big thank you! It is fantastic and I am finding it SOOOOO helpful as I come to grips with Photoshop and want to do some more artistic things with my pictures. The tutorials are wonderful - the perfect amount of detail to make them foolproof - I am so delighted that I found this site!!!" - Hillary

"I have been using your fantastic tutorials for a while now, and I really do find them very user friendly! I'm currently running a photography course and I have been recommending your tutorials to all my students!" - Karen

"I'm just writing to thank you for the many easy to understand tutorials. They're far and away the most enjoyable I've come across. I had been struggling with Photoshop for a couple of years and in spite of seeking help have never been able to get to grips with it. However, after working my way through your Photoshop basics I'm becoming more confident and now feel as if I am starting to get the best out of both the program and my photos. Thank you so much." - John P.

"I thought I knew nothing about Photoshop when I came across your tutorials but one of the photo effects caught my eye so I decided to try it just for a laugh, thinking there's no way I could do it. And you know what? It worked! I tried more of them and couldn't believe the results!

(Video) How to Create a Multi-Page PDF in Photoshop - PHOTOSHOP TUTORIAL

I'm an absolute beginner to Photoshop and was able to create amazing effects without a single problem thanks to your incredibly easy to follow tutorials! I just wanted you to know how impressed I am." - Andrea B.

"Thank you for saving my sanity. I've been fumbling around in the dark with Photoshop for a while now, I've bought a couple of 'how to's' and sat through numerous online tutorials, but none really explained things for a complete novice.

Steve Patterson is an absolute master of elucidation! So thanks a lot - I can now stop banging my head on the keyboard in frustration." - Charlie

"I have been stuck to the computer since I discovered all your tutorials - I just love them - so helpful and interesting - have learned so much in the last 48 hours!" - Hillary S.

"Love the tutorials! I'm using Elements 5.0 so there were some work-around's but I got a desirable result. Keep the tutorials coming." - Denny

"This is to say thank you for the info you provide on your site.
I have been struggling to know how to do some effects with Photoshop but couldn't until I did a search on Google and came across your site. Very straight forward and cool. This morning alone, within just a few minutes I have achieved so much!" - Rufus A.

"I have recently discovered your website and was amazed at all the effects you can create with Photoshop!" - Natashja

"Okay, I'll admit it. These are the best Photoshop tutorials I've ever come across." - Leslie K.

"I am very excited that I located your site and am looking forward to learning from many more of your tutorials. Your instructions are excellent and I love your humor. I will highly recommend your tutorials to my fellow staff members. " - Joanne 0.

(Video) How to Save Color Separations as a PDF From Photoshop Without Losing Quality

"Steve, if you ever write a book on anything that has to do with Photoshop, please let me know so I can rush out and buy it without hesitation. No one, and I mean no one, explains things like you do!" - Mike B.

"I'm a Photoshop beginner and I really, really enjoy your tutorials. They're so well explained and I like your humor as well. Thanks so much!" - Carolina M.

"I'm currently taking photography in college and many students, including myself, were having trouble understanding Photoshop. My instructor recommended your tutorials to us, and after working through some of them, all I can say is, why weren't we using your tutorials to begin with? They're brilliant!" - Gary J.

"I signed up for a six month membership a couple of months ago, and I've been glued to my computer having so much fun with Photoshop thanks to your tutorials! In fact, my wife just commented on how many times she's heard me say 'Wow, I didn't know you could do that!'" - Phil D.

"I'm completely new to Photoshop and these tutorials are awesome! I'm able to follow every step and get great results every time! Your tutorials make me feel great about myself!" - Jessica N.

"I'm a wedding photographer and I just wanted to tell you that your 'Blend Photos Like A Movie Poster' effect has been impressing client after client. Every time I show the finished result, I get the biggest smiles, and sometimes even tears (the good kind). You've made me look like a million bucks, and I can't thank you enough." - Kevin G.

"I just wanted to thank you for your great Photoshop tutorials! Your explanations of things are the very best!" - Zile

"I've been a technical writer for over 35 years, having worked for several major tech corporations, and I've never come across anyone who can explain complicated topics with ease like Steve Patterson." - Walter H.

"I finally found what I have been looking for. Your tutorials are just outstanding. I really enjoy your writing style (it is so simple to follow) and you describe every single action in such great detail - unbelievable. I am a beginner and can't stop reading and practicing with them. They are addictive. " - Aleksandr K.

(Video) How To Save A PDF In Photoshop - Single & Multi-Page PDF Exporting

"Thank you for the awesome tutorial by Steve Patterson on RGB and Color Channels. Easy to read, easy to understand, explanatory, technical terms well defined. 10 minutes later and I know a whole lot more than I did before I read it." - B. Thurston

"I read the tutorial on creating a rainbow effect by Steve Patterson. As a former computer teacher and writer/editor of computer tutorials for my staff, I would like to complement you on the quality of your writing. It's clear, easy to understand, abundantly illustrated with helpful/critical diagrams and photos, and, most importantly, you explain WHY a particular instruction is carried out. Many tutorials say "click here", "do this", etc. but you don't understand why or how the action can apply in other situations. Your explanations avoid this all-too-common pitfall. Thank you so much!" - L. Pearce


How do I make a print ready PDF in Photoshop? ›

Choose File menu, click Print, and then click Save As PDF. 2. In the Save As box, type a name for the file.
  1. Choose File > Save As, and then choose Photoshop PDF from the Format menu.
  2. Click Save. ...
  3. Choose Adobe PDF Preset “Press Quality”
  4. Click Export (Windows) or Save (Mac OS).

Is a Photoshop PDF the same as a regular PDF? ›

The main difference between a PDF and a Photoshop PDF is that a PDF can be opened and viewed without having to have Adobe Photoshop installed on your computer, while a Photoshop PDF can only be opened in Adobe Photoshop.

How do you make a Photoshop document ready to print? ›

You can do this by going to File > Save As and selecting 'Photoshop' from the dropdown. This will give you a version that can be adjusted in the future. To save a print-ready file, you'll want to right-click on one of your layers in the layer panel and select 'Flatten Image'.

What is the difference between a PDF and a print ready PDF? ›

"Print Ready" is a term used in the printing industry to describe a PDF that has been correctly prepared so that it can be printed by a commercial printer. The exact requirements for a PDF to be “print ready” depend on the specific printer that will be printing the PDF document.

How do I know if a PDF is print ready? ›

  1. Open your pdf in Adobe Acrobat Pro DC.
  2. Click on Print Production, then Output Preview. This will bring up. ...
  3. Spot colours need to be converted to CMYK before going to print.
  4. If there's no spot colour, then in the Show All box, scroll down to RGB and check that none of your images is in RGB.

Is it better to save as PDF or print to PDF? ›

'Save As' will more accurately copy the look and actions of the original document into the PDF clone. But that might not be what you want – additional document details (Microsoft calls it 'metadata') can be copied to the PDF and visible to the reader. 'Print' options will make a PDF that looks like a printed page.

What is the advantage to saving a Photoshop file as a PDF? ›

PDF stands for Portable Document Format, and it's used for both print and digital applications. The main advantage of the PDF format is that accessibility doesn't rely on fancy software; anyone can download a free PDF reader (we most often recommend Adobe Acrobat).

Can I save Photoshop files as PDF? ›

Open your file in Photoshop. Go to “File.” From the drop-down menu next to “Format” (located below where you name the file), select “Photoshop PDF.” Click "Save."

What makes a File print ready? ›

Print-Ready is a term used to describe a file that has all the specifications necessary to produce high-resolution printed output, without requiring any additional alteration or intervention. In other words, a commercial printer can use the file "as submitted" to successfully create the desired print materials.

How do I save a JPEG as a print ready PDF? ›

Using your computer to save a JPEG as a PDF
  1. Open your JPEG in the Windows Photo app.
  2. Click on the Print icon.
  3. Choose "Microsoft Print to PDF" from the Printer options.
  4. Click "Print"
  5. "Save" and enjoy your PDF!

How do I convert a PSB File to PDF? ›

Convert PSB to PDF Directly from Photoshop
  1. Open PSB File in Adobe Photoshop.
  2. Now, navigate to the ribbon bar, and click on File Menu >> Print Option.
  3. Under Print Setup select “Microsoft Print to PDF” and click on “Print” button.
  4. Now, provide the “File Name” and click on “Save Button” to convert PSB to PDF format.
16 Jun 2022

Can you edit a print-ready PDF? ›

Edit the contents of a PDF

Before you can change the contents of a PDF, you need to convert it to an editable format, such as . docx. You can't do this with the PDF reader, but you can use the desktop version of Word to convert the file and make your changes.

What is the best PDF format for printing? ›

PDF/X standards are the best choice when your printer hasn't provided you with specs. They're a safe bet if you want to be sure your printer will be able to open your file, while also minimizing any printing errors.

Will a print to PDF actually print? ›

Print to PDF is different from Save as PDF because it only translates the information that you'd see on a printed page. This means that any metadata -- such as links and bookmarks -- will not be translated, and will not be visible to whomever is viewing the "printed" PDF file.

Is JPEG or PDF better for printing? ›

PDFs will often be higher quality than JPEGs. This is because JPEGs compress images, leading to a loss in quality that you can't regain. Visuals saved as PDF are of very high quality and even customizable, making them the file format of choice for printers.

How do I check print progress? ›

View printer queue in Windows
  1. Select Start > Settings > Bluetooth & devices > Printers & scanners . Open Printers & scanners settings.
  2. Select your printer from the list and select Open print queue to see a list of what's printing and the upcoming print order.

How can I tell if a PDF is edited or original? ›

If so, open the document and right click on 'File'> 'Properties'. Under the 'Description' tab there will be the date and time the document is created and the date and time it was last modified. This information should be the same if the PDF has not been modified after creation.

How do I know if Photoshop is CMYK? ›

You can check your color mode by going to File → Document Color Mode. Make sure there's a check next to “CMYK Color.” If “RGB Color” is checked instead, then change it to CMYK.

Why do people still use PDF? ›

While there are many file formats that serve different purposes, PDFs continue to be the standard file format for printing. PDFs are the preferred file for commercial printers for many reasons including the fact that they are easy to share, they have all information the printer needs compressed within them, and more.

What is the point of print to PDF? ›

"Print to PDF" is a unique function that uses a PDF program, such as Kofax Power PDF, as a virtual software printer. The tool adds functionality for creating PDFs from other file types from within the program instead of running a separate conversion.

What happens when PDF is printed? ›

Microsoft Print to PDF lets you create a PDF file of the contents of any web page or file without the need to use third-party software. The . pdf file created by Microsoft Print to PDF can be opened by any app that supports this format.

What is the best file format for printing? ›

The ideal file format choice for print is TIFF, followed closely by PNG.

How do I save a Photoshop file as a PDF without losing quality? ›

Create the following new Adobe PDF Preset from the settings in the "Save Adobe PDF" box that appears: First, select [High Quality Print] from the default options. From the options on the left, choose "Compression"; under "Options", select "Do Not Downsample" and for "Compression" choose "None".

What is the best quality to save in Photoshop? ›

The most popular way to save in Photoshop is the Save As function under the File dropdown.
  • For the highest possible print quality, increase your image's PPI to 300. ...
  • Photoshop PDF is a PDF file type that you can use to save graphics and text for print.
10 Nov 2021

What is a press ready PDF file? ›

A press ready PDF will contain the correct colours for print. This will either be cmyk, spot colours or a mixture of both. Press ready PDFs will never contain RGB or web colours as these are only suitable for digital viewing and not for lithographic print. A correct PDF will contain ONLY the colours needed for print.

What are the five steps in printing a documents? ›

Printing attractive and quality documents doesn't have to be a challenge.
Five Steps To Printing Quality Documents
  1. Think about your message. ...
  2. Consider size and resolution. ...
  3. Select the right paper. ...
  4. Use excellent cartridges. ...
  5. Allow for sufficient dry time.
15 Jan 2016

What's the difference between PDF and PDF E? ›

PDF/X: Ensures the file will work when sent for professional printing (all fonts embedded, no RGB colors, etc.). PDF/A: Ensures the file is appropriate for archiving-that is, it will remain readable for a long time, despite changes in technology. PDF/E: Makes the file particularly useful for engineering documents.

How do I save a Photoshop file as a large PDF? ›

Follow these easy steps to convert your PSD files to PDF:
  1. In Acrobat, navigate to the Create PDF option from the Tools menu.
  2. Click on Select A File.
  3. Navigate to the location of your PSD file and click on it.
  4. Choose Create.
  5. Click the save icon to save your new PDF to the desired location.

Why does it say Save as PDF instead of print? ›

I believe you are trying to print the pdf from your physical printer. After opening the PDF go to the print Dialog box. On the Print dialog Box, On the Bottom Left there is a check box which says Print to file. Uncheck that check Box, you would be able to print from your physical printer.

How do I convert multiple Photoshop PSD to PDF? ›

Follow the Steps to Convert PSD to PDF Multi-page Online Free
  1. Navigate to online2pdf in your web browser.
  2. Drag and drop all your PSD files to online2pdf.
  3. Go to Mode, choose Merge files.
  4. Go to Convert to, choose PDF as output format.
  5. Click Convert to save multiple PSD files as one PDF online free.
16 Jul 2022

What is the difference between a PSD and PSB file? ›

PSD stands for 'Photoshop Document. ' It's the standard file type you will use when you save a Photoshop project. PSB stands for 'Photoshop BIG' but is also known as the 'large document format. ' This file type is only used when you have a large project, or your file is too big to save with a standard PSD.

Can you print PSB files? ›

You simply can not do that with Photoshop. However, in many cases you should be able to export/save a 300ppi TIFF file for reproduction - unless, of course, the reproduction method requires a vector file.

What are the steps of printing process? ›

Each printing process is divided into prepress, press, and postpress steps.
  1. Prepress operations encompass steps during which the idea for a printed image is converted into an image carrier such as a plate, cylinder, or screen. ...
  2. Press refers to actual printing operations.
23 Aug 2022

Can I edit a PDF without buying Adobe? ›

You can edit PDF files using online tools, Google Docs, Google Drive, and other methods we're about to cover below. Here's what you'll learn: Editing PDF Files And Documents Without Adobe Acrobat.

Can I edit a PDF without paying? ›

Most users who need to modify PDF files instinctively believe that they need to purchase premium desktop PDF Editing software. Thankfully, today there are online PDF editors like DocFly that allow anyone to edit a PDF online quickly and cheaply! DocFly allows you to edit three files per month at no charge.

How do I completely edit a PDF? ›

How to edit PDF files:
  1. Open a file in Acrobat.
  2. Click on the “Edit PDF” tool in the right pane.
  3. Use Acrobat editing tools: Add new text, edit text, or update fonts using selections from the Format list. ...
  4. Save your edited PDF: Name your file and click the “Save” button.

How much do print designers charge? ›

According to Upwork's own internal data, the median hourly rate for a freelance graphic designer on their platform falls between $15 – $35 per hour, with an average of $25 per hour. Within that, there's a wide range of anywhere from $15–$150 per hour.

Is Canva design print ready? ›

Canva is a great online alternative to programs like Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator. Some print customers choose to use this online platform when creating their print-ready files.

› watch ›

CREATING PRINT READY PDF FILES | Design Basics Episode 9Welcome to a brand new Design Basics video series with Eric Vasquez. In today's lesson, we will talk...
Print ready files save you time and allow your print project to be produced in a fast and efficient manner. One of the first steps in making a print ready file ...
We explain what a "print-ready" file is for a commercial printer. This will help you when submitting your files to us at PrintFusion.

How do I save a JPEG as a print ready PDF? ›

Using your computer to save a JPEG as a PDF
  1. Open your JPEG in the Windows Photo app.
  2. Click on the Print icon.
  3. Choose "Microsoft Print to PDF" from the Printer options.
  4. Click "Print"
  5. "Save" and enjoy your PDF!

Is there a print preview in PhotoShop? ›

To access the Print (and preview) window go to File > Print (Or File > Print with Preview in older versions of Photoshop. Or Ctrl + P on your keyboard.). With the Print dialog you not only see how your document will print, but you can also change page settings and so on.

What is the best PDF setting for print? ›

PDF/X standards are the best choice when your printer hasn't provided you with specs. They're a safe bet if you want to be sure your printer will be able to open your file, while also minimizing any printing errors.

What format is a print ready file? ›

The file type is also important, it's required to be a PDF. Files created with Microsoft programs – like Word, Publisher or PowerPoint – often require some level of intervention and conversion to make them Print-Ready.

What is better for printing PDF or JPEG? ›

PDFs will often be higher quality than JPEGs. This is because JPEGs compress images, leading to a loss in quality that you can't regain. Visuals saved as PDF are of very high quality and even customizable, making them the file format of choice for printers.

How do I save a high quality PDF in Photoshop? ›

Create the following new Adobe PDF Preset from the settings in the "Save Adobe PDF" box that appears: First, select [High Quality Print] from the default options. From the options on the left, choose "Compression"; under "Options", select "Do Not Downsample" and for "Compression" choose "None".

Can you create print ready files in Canva? ›

To make your Canva design print-ready you need to ensure the bleed area is set up. To do this, spread your content outside of the artwork area by dragging the borders out past the edge of the page. As shown in the image below – the bounding box for the background layer is sitting outside the visible artwork area.

How do I preview a PDF before printing? ›

Keyboard shortcut

Press Alt + P / ⌥ alt + P to open the print preview.

How do I find print preview? ›

Click the File tab, and then click Print. Do one of the following: To preview your file, click Print Preview. To go back to your file and make changes before you print it, click the File tab again.

How do I view prints in Photoshop? ›

To view the current print size and/or change it just go to Image — Image Size and make sure it's in inches as shown in the below screenshot. You can change to the print size you want then go to View – Print Size and it will zoom in so you can see how the image will look at actual print size.

Which PDF format should I use? ›

PDF/X – This standard best suits print professionals, graphic designers, and creative professionals who need to create high-quality, professional-grade documents. This PDF standard will ensure print-ready documents by correctly embedding fonts, images, color profiles, and more.

How do I print a PDF in high-quality? ›

Print Ready PDF – How To Create A High Resolution PDF File Using Acrobat DC
  1. In The Save AS PDF box you then have to click on Settings.
  2. Next in the Preflight dialog you have to select Save as PDF/X-4 and then click on OK.
  3. You now have a high-resolution print Ready PDF.
5 Jan 2022

What are the best Photoshop settings for print? ›

Standard “high-resolution” 300ppi is great for a photo or a painting, but for text-based design, it's too small. As resolution increases, the number of pixels Photoshop uses to create one letter increases. That means more detailed, accurate, and legible text. Your document should be at least 600ppi.


1. Multi Page PDF In Photoshop Tutorial (How to make a pdf in Photoshop)
(Signature Edits)
2. KDP PDF Print Ready PDF covers - PhotoShop or Canva - SUPER FAST and Easy - Tangent Template Update
(Katharyne Shelton)
3. Bridge Can Do THAT? 🤯 Tips & Tricks for Adobe Bridge!
(Daniel Beehn)
4. Photoshop Tutorial - Create a high-resolution PDF file
(LinkedIn Learning)
5. Export Multiple Images as PDF | Photoshop Tutorial
(Joseph V M)
6. How to prepare an Illustrator file for printing and Save or Export as Acrobat PDF
(Graphic Design How To)
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Kareem Mueller DO

Last Updated: 10/31/2022

Views: 6297

Rating: 4.6 / 5 (46 voted)

Reviews: 85% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Kareem Mueller DO

Birthday: 1997-01-04

Address: Apt. 156 12935 Runolfsdottir Mission, Greenfort, MN 74384-6749

Phone: +16704982844747

Job: Corporate Administration Planner

Hobby: Mountain biking, Jewelry making, Stone skipping, Lacemaking, Knife making, Scrapbooking, Letterboxing

Introduction: My name is Kareem Mueller DO, I am a vivacious, super, thoughtful, excited, handsome, beautiful, combative person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.