The Vitamin D and Vitamin K2 Connection: Understanding the Mechanisms, What to Test, and How Much D3 and K2 to Take - Dr. Alex Rinehart (2023)

Your Go-To Resource for D3 and K2 Supplementation

If you’re taking Vitamin D, it is critical that you consider Vitamin K2 supplementation. It’s even better if you consider Vitamin A supplementation too.

Vitamin D and K2 work with one another to maintain tight control over calcium levels in the body. Vitamins A and D work together with bone health but help support the utilization of the other. This analysis will focus on the interactions of D and K foremost.

Vitamin D controls the absorption of calcium into the blood. Vitamin K2 controls where that calcium ends up.

Over-supplementation of vitamin D3without ample vitamin K2 leads to problems of excess calcium.

If calcium isn’t laid into bone, it will find itself in other tissues, like your arteries. Calcium in the arteries is BAD. It contributes to atherosclerosis and vessel stiffness.

Cardiovascular disease happens to be the leading cause of death.

You can eat a healthy diet, exercise, not smoke, and drink moderately – and still suffer from cardiovascular disease if calcium builds up in your arteries.

Before you run and throw out your D3 supplements, remember that most Americans have suboptimal levels of vitamin D3 in the first place and could benefit from more sun and vitamin D3.

We jumped on vitamin D as a “super vitamin” for good reason. Many now supplement with D3 freely looking for the benefits.

While D3 has amazing benefits to consider for your health, it is CRITICAL to consider K2 with any D3 supplement plan. I’m going to explain why, review some scenarios, and give you general guidelines on how much to take for each scenario.

As always, these are powerful supplement strategies and this is intended as an educational exercise. You need to make decisions in the context of your own health circumstances & with the guidance of a professional.

Quick Review on Vitamin D:

-Vitamin D is stored in the liver as 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH vitamin D; calcidiol). This is what doctors are measuring when you have your D3 levels checked.

-Vitamin D is “activated” by the kidneys to 1,25 hydroxyvitamin D (1,25 OH vitamin D; calcitriol). This is the active form of vitamin D that’s responsible for its biological activities.

To avoid confusion, instead of abbreviating the terms, I’ll include them all each time one is mentioned.

The “normal”, medical range of 25-OH vitamin D (inactive storage form; calcidiol) is20 ng/mL to 100ng/mL.

This range is rather wide.

For years, vitamin D status was thought to only be important for bone health. 20ng/mL is what’s necessary to keep yourself from soft, weak bones. Intake of800IU/day is generally the minimum needed to support bone health.

Vitamin D has many more benefits than just bone health. You’ll need higher intake levels of D3 to experience the full range of benefits.

As intake levels rise, it becomes increasingly important to consider vitamin K2 as part of your supplementation!

Vitamin D3 Benefits:

Vitamin D is a powerful hormone & does much more than support bone health.

  • It helps keep your immune system strong and balanced.
  • It has anti-inflammatory properties, promotes intestinal integrity, and has been correlated with decreased risk for a number of cancer types.

To get more of these whole-body benefits beyond bone health, natural health experts recommend vitamin D levels (25-OH vitamin D; calcidiol; storage) closer to the range of 40-80 ng/mL, with 50-70ng/mL being an even more optimal sweet spot.

I live in Arizona and get sun exposure just about every day by sitting out by the pool for 20 minutes a day, hiking, bike-riding, and more. I supplement on the days I’m not out in the sun, and my levels still measured at just 30 ng/mL recently!

You just don’t know until you have your levels measured.

Benefits of Vitamin K2

The Vitamin D and Vitamin K2 Connection: Understanding the Mechanisms, What to Test, and How Much D3 and K2 to Take - Dr. Alex Rinehart (1)Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that is known to be involved in blood clotting, and to have importance for bone health.

Vitamin K has a range of structures with “K1; phylloquinone” and “K2; menaquinone” being the first major difference.

Vitamin K1 is used by the liver to help with blood clotting. Vitamin K2 works outside of the liver and is more of the focus of this discussion.

Most people think of vitamin K2 as a bone supplement. K2 can be safe while taking blood thinners (K1 is more of the direct concern), but you must check your PT/INR measurements (clotting time) with your doctor routinely.

Like Vitamin D3, vitamin K2 also has whole-body benefits beyond bone health. To see these benefits, you’re going to generally need more dosage up to as much as 320mcg/day.

Vitamin K2 activates certain proteins that control calcium homeostasis in the body. This includes laying calcium into bone, and keeping calcium out of soft tissues like the arteries & kidneys.

For a more complete discussion, see a number of articles I’ve written onVitamin K2 benefits.

Measuring Vitamin K2 Levels in the Body

Admittedly, there is not a great direct measurement of vitamin K2 in the body.

Vitamin K is carried around by lipoproteins in the blood and the actual amount of K2 measured in the blood does not necessarily reflect your vitamin K2 storage.

Since it’s difficult to measure K2 directly, you use a substitute marker that can indirectly reflect your status.

I like using the marker of “active” vitamin D3 measured as 1,25 OH Vitamin D (calcitriol).

Vitamin D and Vitamin K2 and Calcium Balance

The vitamin D number you’re used to seeing is the storage form of vitamin D3 known as 25-OH vitamin D (calcidiol). This is how much vitamin D is available to the body. 25-OH vitamin D (calcidiol; storage) still needs to be activated by the kidneys to 1,25 OH vitamin D (calcitriol; active D3) to provide vitamin D functions in the body.

Vitamin D controls how much calcium is available in the blood only when in is in the 1,25-OH vitamin D (active; calcitriol) form.

1,25 OH vitamin D (active; calcitriol) levels change based on the body’s need for calcium. Once activated and released in the body, it can stay in the system for as long as 24 hours before it’s fully metabolized. This means that you can have an extended period of excess calcium in the blood. When calcium is in excess, the body finds unhealthy ways to get it out of the blood.

Note: It is common for elevations of 1,25 OH vitamin D (active; calcitriol) to appear during growth phases (ages <16) or bone repair. Be careful to not chase markers when they can be explained by other factors!

Once calcium is absorbed or released in the blood, it still needs to be told where to go! That is why vitamin K2 status is crucial to healthy calcium balance in the body.

Vitamin K2 is arguably a leading anti-aging vitamin. Atherosclerosis and vessel stiffness are made worse by excess calcium.

Cardiovascular disease, characterized by atherosclerosis and vessel stiffness, is the number one cause of death.

Vitamin K2 is being evaluated as a means to reduce risk.

Vitamin K2-Dependent Body Functions

Your body has vitamin K2-dependentproteins that control the flow of calcium in tissues.

If you have consistently high 1,25 OH vitamin D (active; calcitriol), this acts to release more calcium into the bloodstream. If you do not vitamin K2 available to activate vitamin K2-dependent proteins, calcium builds up.

As the body wants to keep calcium levels very stable, the extra calcium eventually finds storage where you do not want it!

The Vitamin D and Vitamin K2 Connection: Understanding the Mechanisms, What to Test, and How Much D3 and K2 to Take - Dr. Alex Rinehart (2)

Vitamin K2 is the signal that makes sure the calcium is laid into the bone. K2 also activates a protein that takes calcium out of the arteries.

To control calcium balance (as well as bone and cardiovascular health), you must have sufficient vitamin K2 to activate the relevant vitamin K2-dependent proteins!

Benefits of Vitamin K2 include improved brain health,, as well as the risk of cardiovascular disease, kidney stones, and cancer development.

If you do NOT have ample vitamin K2 levels, you will not be able to mineralize that calcium back into bone. When your active vitamin D level is high, you are prone to high levels of blood calcium.

Now, the calcium is more likely to end up where you DON’T want it to go (like the arteries, kidneys, and soft tissues).

The K2 is also less available to scavenge for free radicals, produce energy, and promote blood sugar and brain health.

Vitamin K2 Supplementation

Vitamin K2 status depends on your intake.

Vitamin K2 is not widely available in foods. It is high in some fermented cheeses and a fermented soybean product is known as Natto.

Vitamin K1 is available in diets and is high in dark, leafy greens. The body will turn some K1 into K2, but it wants to use K1 foremost to promote clotting in the liver.

Due to low intakes of K2 in Western diets, many have turned to vitamin K2 supplementation to assure healthy levels in their body.

Which is Better, Vitamin K2-4 or K2-7?

K2 is available supplementally as Vitamin K2-4 and Vitamin K2-7. The “4” and “7” refer to the length of the vitamin K structure.

The chemical name of vitamin K2 is known as “menaquinone”. It is available in supplements as “menaquinone-4; mk-4” or “menaquinone-7; mk-7”.

K2-4 is only available as a synthetic supplement and is metabolized quickly by the body. The longer K2-7 is non-synthetic & stays in your blood for 24-72 hours. K2-7 can be taken once daily to maintain K2 levels, whereas K2-4 is taken a few times per day.

K2-4 may also run into problems of purity and may contain trace amounts of unknown chemical compounds. Because K2-4 is used up more quickly by the body, it is less available to serve vitamin K needs across the entire body for the full day.

For these reasons, I use K2-7 for supplementation.

Vitamin K2-7 (menaquinone K2-7) stays in your blood longer and is more readily available to activate your K2-dependent proteins throughout the whole day. It’s less likely to be grabbed up by the liver and used for other purposes too.

K2 and D3 supplements exist together, which I prefer, or add on separately as needs for either K2 or D3 will vary per person.

Research shows that the benefits of K2-7 increase along with the dose. I use 320mcg-500mcg, and while levels above are not necessarily harmful – the excess can be a waste of money and potentially drive new imbalances.

If you’re looking for a baseline recommendation for D3 and K2 supplementation. 2000-5000IU of D3(“cholecalciferol) and up to 320mcg/day of vitamin K2-7 (found inMegaquinone K2-7) are popular and safe ways to go as long as you’re periodically checking at least your 25-OH vitamin D levels (storage; calcidiol).

I chose to carry Vitamin A D K Complete by Doctor Alex Supplements as a baseline supplement that optimizes levels of all three fat-soluble vitamins (5000 IU retinyl palmitate for Vitamin A, 5000 IU** D3 for vitamin D, and 500mcg of K2-7 all in one capsule) – which work together. For those separating intake I carry Vitamin D 5000IU and Micellized Vitamin A Drops.

The Vitamin A and K products are vegan, but Vitamin D is often derived from lanolin from sheep oil. Here is the vegan Vitamin D3 capsules and vegan D3 liquidI carry in case someone is strictly vegan.

**Anyone taking vitamin D greater than 2000 IU/day should have their levels regularly monitored.

If you want to go deeper, read on 🙂

Are You Taking Enough Vitamin K2 for Optimal Benefit?

How can you tell if your K2 is low?

If you take Vitamin D, I believe that you should take Vitamin K2 along side it.

Foremost, I generally recommend taking 320-500mcg per day of vitamin K2 in the form menaquinone K2-7 (320mcg + cofactors) or ADK Complete (5000 IU Vitamin A, 5000IU D3, and 500mcg K2-7) to support everyday wellness.

The “scenarios” below address circumstances when you should take more, or get away with taking less of both vitamins.

Scenario Cheat-Sheet

Scenarios #1-2 focus on D3 need.

Scenarios #3-5 focus on increasing K2 need (D3 may still benefit from higher intakes too to optimize levels).

**Scenario #3 is the “ideal” scenario that lets you know if you might decrease your D3 and/or K2 intake (or maintain current supplement support level).

Scenario #6 are examples when you might decrease D3 intake and/or strongly emphasize K2 intake. It also may mean seeking professional guidance to rule out red flags.

If I am going to be taking a supplement on an on-going basis, I want to know why its important to invest the time and money in the first place. Secondly, I want to know if I’m getting enough.

Active 1,25 OH Vitamin D (calcitriol) as an Indirect Marker of K2

Since “active” 1,25 OH vitamin D (calcitriol) increases calcium in the blood, a HIGH level of the 1,25 OH vitamin D (active; calcitriol) marker is a general sign that the body is still looking for more calcium or calcium is not finding its way to where it needs to be.

Both circumstances are K2-dependent for proper balance.

Higher levels of 1,25 OH vitamin D (active; calcitriol) means that there is more calcium in the blood needing a place to go – which can signal a higher need for vitamin K2 to direct things appropriately.

Remember, active 1,25 OH vitamin D (calcitriol) can remain in the system for ~24 hours after release. So, you’ll want to make sure that K2 is available for 24 hours too.

While high 1,25 OH vitamin D can be a sign of parathyroid disease or other health issues that need to be ruled out, you can use 1,25 OH vitamin D (active; calcitriol) to give you an indirect idea of how well you are maintaining calcium balance in the body. Check the scenarios below to see if you might benefit from more D3 and/or K2-7.

The higher the 1,25 OH vitamin D (active; calcitriol), the more critical it is that you supply the body with vitamin K2.

Vitamin D3 and K2 Lab Result Scenarios
The Vitamin D and Vitamin K2 Connection: Understanding the Mechanisms, What to Test, and How Much D3 and K2 to Take - Dr. Alex Rinehart (3)How Much Vitamin D3 and K2 to Take for Each

First, some rules of thumb to follow…

-Vitamin K2-7 supplement intake ranges from 45mcg/day up to 500mcg/day.

-Vitamin D3 supplement intake ranges from 400IU/day up to 10,000 IU/day (sometimes super-dosing is recommended in medical settings in the 25,000-50,000 IU ranges).

-“Normal” values reported on lab results can vary slightly per lab or region)

-Check your levels roughly every 3 months until you are satisfied. Then, check status once or twice a year.

-You may consume vitamin D3 from a number of sources as it is found in fatty fish like salmon, and it is commonly added to other supplements. Likewise, K2-7 can be consumed in some fermented cheeses and natto. Take those intakes into consideration.

-Ideally, take Vitamin D in the D3 form (cholecalciferol). The D2 form (ergocalciferol) needs to be converted to vitamin D3 by the body (and the conversion is inefficient). D2 is the form you will likely find in “prescription” forms of D3.

-Some professionals will recommend weekly 25,000-50,000 IU doses of D3. Vitamin D3 may be recommended even higher. Doses of D3 over a short-term may increase D3 stores in the liver enough to last you 1-3+ months.

-Take vitamins K2-7 and D3 after fat-containing meal or snack. Vitamins D and K are fat-soluble vitamins and will be absorbed better when taken in this manner. It doesn’t take much fat in a meal to optimize absorption. A small handful of nuts may be sufficient for example.


1.) Functionally low in vitamin D (<40ng/mL 25-OH vitamin D range).
2.) Normal 1,25 OH vitamin D (Optimally ~<45 pg/mL).

When you vitamin D status is on the lower end of normal (or medically low below 20 ng/mL)your body can sense that you need more calcium.

It is best to optimize your stores of D3 up to and above 40ng/mL. Many individuals still do not meet the medical low standard of 20ng/mL of 25-OH vitamin D (storage; calcidiol). This level can be improved by D3 supplementation, sunlight, and a little from food sources.

Generally, I stick to 5000 IU until 25-OH vitamin D (calcidiol) levels are within the optimal 50-70ng/mL. At that point, I will reduce intake closer to 2,000 IU/day and monitor from there.

I only use 10,000 IU when 25-OH vitamin D (calcidiol) levels are significantly low (<25 ng/mL) or the levels do not seem to be responding to lower intakes. Some individuals (like myself) carry genetic markers in the vitamin D receptor that reduce their ability to absorb and utilize D3.

In this scenario, the focus is on increasing D3 intake until levels are at or above 40ng/mL.

Vitamin D3 Supplementation: 2,000-10,000 IU.

Vitamin K2-7 Supplementation: Wellness: 45mcg- 500mcg/day


1.) Functionally low in vitamin D (<40ng/mL 25-OH vitamin D range).
2.)High-Normal or High1,25 OH vitamin D (>45 pg/mL)

When the body senses that it needs more calcium. It sends out more signals to convert more 25-OH vitamin D (storage, calcidiol) into 1,25 OH vitamin D (active, calcitriol).

When 1,25-OH vitamin D (active calcitriol) marker is high or high-normal, it’s a sign that your body is requesting more calcium.

Couple a high 1,25 OH vitamin D (active calcitriol) with a low 25-OH vitamin D (stored calcidiol) measurement, and it’s a sign that you could benefit from more vitamin D3, calcium, and/or sunlight.

I generally avoid calcium supplements unless a client has clinical osteoporosis, or a 1,25 OH vitamin D (active, calcitriol) measurement >80 pg/mL coupled with low vitamin D stores (<40ng/mL 25-OH vitamin D, calcidiol).

High intake of magnesium may also call for some calcium supplementation as higher magnesium intakes will drive down calcium absorption (generally 800mg of magnesium, 200-400mg of calcium citrate or otherwise). If I’m supplementing for calcium, I generally switch the intake levels to 800mg of calcium and 400 mg of magnesium.

Check with your doctor as to what’s right for you.

In this scenario, the high 1,25 OH may be a reflection of low D3 status in the first place and the body is working harder to make sure it has enough calcium available to the body. The focus is still on D3 intake and a wellness intake of K2.

Vitamin D3 Supplementation: 2000-10,000 IU/day to maintain/optimize levels as needed.
Vitamin K2-7 Supplementation: 45-500mcg/day, still a wellness range, but a stronger recommendation to include it with your D3 supplementation.


Scenario #3 is the “ideal” scenario.

Scenarios #3-5 are similar in that 1,25 OH vitamin D levels can be in the middle, optimal range and start to elevate closer to the high-end of the range. As 1,25 OH vitamin D elevates, the recommendation to maintain a wellness intake of K2 increases.

1.) 25-OH vitamin D >40 ng/mL; <80 ng/mL
2.) 1,25-OH vitamin D 35-45 pg/mL

As 25-OH vitamin D levels elevate beyond 40ng/mL, your K2 status becomes much more important.

In this scenario, your calcium balance appears normal, so you would maintain your regular, wellness K2 intake.

D3 levels (25-OH vitamin D) as high as 80 ng/mL are associated with more benefits for immunity, inflammation, metabolism, and gut health in proportion to the increases. So it can still be beneficial to continue taking D3 to maintain and optimize your stores.

In this scenario, your D3 levels are healthy, it is just about getting more optimal benefit from D3. Research shows benefits up to 80ng/mL and beyond. When you exceed storage of 40ng/mL, K2 intake becomes more essential, so it follows a firmer recommendation to take K2 on a wellness basis.

Vitamin D3 Supplementation:2000-10000 IU to maintain/optimize levels
Vitamin K2-7 Supplementation: 100-500mcg/mL, a slightly higher range to promote more activation of K2-dependent proteins. Benefits start at 45 mcg, but are more optimal as you exceed 100mcg. 320-500mcg optimizes activation of most K2-dependent proteins.

Without enough K2, you can be prone to calcium excess and essentially cancel out the added benefits of higher D3 levels!


1.) 25-OH Vitamin D: >40ng/mL
2.) 1,25-OH vitamin D: >45 pg/mL

In this scenario, you have ample levels of stored D3, but your body is beginning to ask for more vitamin K2. This is an early functional sign, and not a signal that something is wrong by any means. It is the first inkling of a sign that K2 intake is becoming more important. This is similar to Scenario #3 but just that your 1,25 OH vitamin D (active; calcitriol) is starting to trend to a higher end of normal.

Vitamin D3 Supplementation:maintain or increase regular intake to maintain 25-OH vitamin D levels at 40-80ng/mL.
Vitamin K2-7 Supplementation: 100mcg-500mg


1.) 25-OH Vitamin D: Varied
2.) 1,25-OH vitamin D: >65pg/mL

If you’re levels of active 1,25 OH vitamin D are greater >65 ng/mL, it is recommended to take a higher wellness level of vitamin K2-intake closer to the range of 160mcg-500mcg/day.

Vitamin D3 Supplementation: reference other scenarios
Vitamin K2-7 Supplementation:


1.) 25-OH vitamin D: >80 ng/mL (slow down/stop intake), >100ng/mL (find out why)
2.) 1,25-OH vitamin D: >75 pg/mL

When both the storage and active D3 values are in these upper ranges, it’s important to rule out inflammatory disorders or other causes, not exclusive to over-supplementation of D3 and/or calcium.

There can be medical reasons for high values. My intent is to educate you on functional ranges, not the medical/clinical scenarios. Work with a professional to assure yourself that all is well.

In both instances, I would still emphasize K2-7 intake at the 320mcg/day, and sometimes higher if the 1,25 OH vitamin D (active, calcitriol) levels are not responding. Excess calcium is a problem not to be ignored.

When either 25-oH or 1,25OH are above the clinical ranges, seek out professional screening and investigation. Remember, context is always key.

Vitamin D3 Supplementation: Stop or slow down on D3 intake when 25-OH vitamin D measures above 80-100 ng/mL
Vitamin K2-7 Supplementation: 320-500mcg/day when both 25- OH vitamin D (calcidiol) and/or 1,25 OH vitamin D (active, calcitriol) are elevated.

This discussion is intended for the educational purpose of demonstrating the inter-linkages between the functions of Vitamin D3 and K2-7. Consult with a professional when making sense of your blood work and other clinical decisions.

Vitamin K2-7 is one of my top 10 most recommended supplements for good reason. Taking it with your D3 supplements is just one of the many benefits.

Learn More about the Health Benefits of Vitamin K2:

  • Vitamin K2 Benefits

My Favorite Source:

  • Vitamin A D K Complete by Doctor Alex Supplements

    NOTE: While A, D, and K are fat-soluble vitamins, they should not compete for absorption, they are all collectively helped by taking with a fat-containing meal. For instance, A & D occur naturally together in fish and eggs. Other minerals compete for the same receptors, not necessarily the case with fat-soluble vitamins. A number of studies show the benefits of taking A, D, or K together for synergistic support.

    I separate A, D, and K when someone has a vegan preference (D3 as the culprit in the products mentioned), needs less than 5000 IU of D3 (monitor D3 levels for intake above 2000 IU per day), or might be getting other sources of Vitamin A in supplements (Upper limit per day someone might take is 10,000 IU). If you are taking D3 and levels are not changing, chances are you may need synergistic fat-soluble vitamin support

Individual Sources of A D and K:

  • Micellized Vitamin A Drops (as pre-formed Vitamin A known as Retinyl palmitate)
  • Vitamin D 5000IU
  • Vegan Vitamin D3 capsules
  • Vegan D3 liquid
  • Megaquinone K2-7 by Microbiome Labs
  • Myomax by Microbiome Labs (no vitamin K1 content; adds calcium pyruvate for muscle energy)

Note on Vitamin E:

Vitamin E is an important fat-soluble vitamin with a wealth of researched benefits for cardiovascular disease, anti-aging, skin, eye health, cellular health, and more. Vitamin E is actually a complex of at least 8 different compounds known as “isomers”.

These are referred to as “tocopherols” or “tocotrienols”. Vitamin E tocopherols/tocotrienols are important antioxidants for fat-soluble membranes (every cell, nerve, and those that comprise the brain).

For years, supplements focused on D-alpha-tocopherol, yet this form can be problematic for subgroups of people. Because of overlaps of protective or risk genes, it can be difficult to determine if you’re at risk or not. I look for “gamma or mixed tocopherols”, or better yet, a “mixed tocotrienol” blend. The following supplements support Vitamin E needs best based on the most recent research sentiment in the industry.

  • Annatto-150 by Designs for Health
  • Annatto-300 by Designs for Health
  • Annatto-GG by Designs for Health (also contains the exciting anti-aging benefits of geranyl-geraniol [GG])


What is the correct ratio of vitamin D3 to K2? ›

For every 5,000–10,000 units of D3 being recommended and tested for, we are recommending 100 mcg of K2 mk7 to be sure and prevent the inappropriate calcification that higher doses of D3 alone could cause.

How much K2 should I take daily for vitamin D? ›

Vitamin K2, along with vitamin D, are essential for the bones to uptake and incorporate calcium. Vitamin K2 is found in a soybean product called natto, and in dairy products and egg yolks. Recommended daily intake is 120 mcg for adult men and 90 mcg for adult women.

How much K2 is in natto? ›

Natto is a Japanese dish made from fermented soybeans. It's high in many nutrients that promote good gut health and is the richest source of vitamin K2 available. One tablespoon of Natto contains 150 micrograms of vitamin K2, about twice the recommended intake.

How much mk4 per day? ›

The 45 mg of vitamin K2 (MK-4) should be administered in 15 mg doses, three times daily for optimal utilization.

Should I take D3 and K2 at same time? ›

Vitamin D3 should therefore always be taken in combination with vitamin K2. These two vitamins work together synergistically and ensure that calcium obtained from food is deposited in the bones and not in the arteries.

Which is better vitamin D3 or vitamin D3 with K2? ›

D3 is safer and more effective with K2 to balance calcium in the body. Any formulation that includes D3 can be improved by K2,” says Jörg Büttinghaus, Vice President Kappa Sales and Marketing.

How much D3 should you take a day? ›

In patients with vitamin D levels less than 20 ng/mL, start with 50,000 IUs of vitamin D3 once a week for 6 to 8 weeks. After that, a dose of 800 to 2000 IU per day should be taken to maintain vitamin D levels above 30 ng/mL.

What happens if you take too much vitamin D3 and K2? ›

The main consequence of vitamin D toxicity is a buildup of calcium in your blood (hypercalcemia), which can cause nausea and vomiting, weakness, and frequent urination. Vitamin D toxicity might progress to bone pain and kidney problems, such as the formation of calcium stones.

Can you take too much vitamin D3 and K2? ›

While getting enough vitamin D is essential for bone health, too much can actually have a detrimental effect. Some research has found that having too much vitamin D can interfere with the actions of vitamin K2, which is a nutrient that helps keep calcium in the bones.

How much vitamin K2 is in nattokinase? ›

A single tablespoon of natto contains more than 150 micrograms of Vitamin K2 as MK-7 along with Bacillus subtilis probiotics, nattokinase enzyme in the natural context of a nutritious, protein-rich whole food. Take a look at our Natto Recipes page for ideas on how to eat more natto.

Should you take nattokinase and K2 together? ›

In other words, Nattokinase and Vitamin K-2 have very different effects on the body, but like many other supplements can have some overlapping areas of benefits. They don't exactly work against each other because the clotting factors will allow your blood to clot when needed, but won't force it to clot.

How many eggs is enough K2? ›

One dozen eggs a day from caged hens won't supply enough K2 for your daily requirement, whereas two to four eggs a day from pasture-raised hens may provide adequate K2.

Is 1000 mcg of K2 too much? ›

We do not recommend it. A daily dose of 500 to 1000 mcg of MK-4 is adequate and close to healthy ancestral consumption. Combine that with 100 to 200 mcg of MK-7. This will cover virtually everyone's needs.

How much vitamin K2 MK-4 should I take? ›

Recommended daily dosage for Vitamin K2 MK4 is 45 mg. Because Vitamin K2 MK4 has a shorter half life than MK7, health professionals recommend that you consume Vitamin K2 MK three times throughout the day.

How long does K2 MK-4 stay in your system? ›

Specifically, we'll be talking about the dietary sources for the short chain menaquinone, MK4, which is a version of K2 that only remains active in your body for about six hours.

Should I take vitamin D3 K2 in the morning or at night? ›

While the best timing has not been established, scientific data to confirm anecdotal reports that supplementing at night may interfere with sleep is unavailable. Current research suggests you can fit vitamin D into your routine whenever you prefer.

Should I take K2 morning or night? ›

You can take vitamin K2 at any time of the day, as long as it's with a meal or snack that contains some fat.

Who should not take K2 supplements? ›

Vitamin K2 Contraindications

You should not use this medicine if you have had an allergic reaction to any single vitamin or multivitamin. Do not use this medicine if you are under 18 years old.

How much D3 and K2 should I take daily? ›

Vitamin D3 Supplementation: 2000-10,000 IU/day to maintain/optimize levels as needed. Vitamin K2-7 Supplementation: 45-500mcg/day, still a wellness range, but a stronger recommendation to include it with your D3 supplementation.

What happens if you take vitamin D3 without K2? ›

In the absence of vitamin K2, calcium circulating in the body that has been absorbed from food by vitamin D is also deposited in the soft tissues of the body and in the arteries, leading to arterosclerosis. Vitamin D3 should therefore always be taken in combination with vitamin K2.

How much D3 does a woman need? ›

A: The upper tolerable limit is 4,000 international units (IU) daily, and the recommended amount for women 14 to 70 is 600 IU per day. Women 71 and older should aim for 800 IU per day.

Is 2000 IU of D3 daily too much? ›

Mayo Clinic recommends that adults get at least the RDA of 600 IU. However, 1,000 to 2,000 IU per day of vitamin D from a supplement is generally safe, should help people achieve an adequate blood level of vitamin D, and may have additional health benefits.

What happens if you take vitamin D3 everyday? ›

Taking vitamin D can increase levels of calcium in the blood, and too much calcium can cause side effects. If you take large doses of vitamin D, you may experience stomach pain, loss of appetite, constipation, or diarrhea as a result of elevated calcium levels.

Can you take vitamin D and D3 together? ›

The two types of vitamin D have no negative interactions with each other, so you can safely take them together. However, the body converts both forms of vitamin D to the same active form, called calcitriol.

Can too much D3 be harmful? ›

Vitamin D is important for your bones, muscles, nerves, immune system, and more. But if you get too much, it could lead to a rare and possibly serious condition called vitamin D toxicity. You may hear your doctor call it hypervitaminosis D. The condition can bring symptoms like weakness and vomiting.

Can too much vitamin D3 be toxic? ›

In addition, taking a supplement that contains too much vitamin D can be toxic in rare cases. It can lead to hypercalcemia, a condition in which too much calcium builds up in the blood, potentially forming deposits in the arteries or soft tissues. It may also predispose people to painful kidney stones.

Can taking too much vitamin D3 hurt you? ›

It's usually the result of taking high-dose vitamin D supplements. Too much vitamin D can cause abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood. This can affect bones, tissues, and other organs. It can lead to high blood pressure, bone loss, and kidney damage if not treated.

What time of day should I take d3 k2? ›

There's no set time of day that's best to take vitamin D supplements. Some people say taking vitamin D supplements at night is an insomnia risk. There's no research to confirm this, but you might want to take your supplement earlier in the day if you think it's screwing with your sleep.

Does vitamin K2 raise cholesterol? ›

Accordingly, subjects in the Rotterdam Study with the highest vitamin K2 intake consumed more total and saturated fats and also had lower total cholesterol values and higher levels of heart-protective HDL cholesterol.

Does vitamin K2 Decalcify arteries? ›

In contrast, vitamin K2 is associated with the inhibition of arterial calcification and arterial stiffening. An adequate intake of vitamin K2 has been shown to lower the risk of vascular damage because it activates matrix GLA protein (MGP), which inhibits the deposits of calcium on the walls.

What does vitamin K2 do to arteries? ›

Increased vitamin K2 intake may reduce arterial stiffness, slow progression of vascular and valvular calcification, lower the incidence of diabetes and coronary artery disease, and decrease cardiovascular mortality.

Does nattokinase remove plaque from arteries? ›

Thus, NK was found to be a potent antithrombotic agent, and, by reducing thrombus formation, was able to slow the progression of plaque formation and reverse evolving atherosclerotic lesions. Data from human studies also strongly support NK or natto as a potent and promising fibrinolytic agent.

Who should not take nattokinase? ›

Patients with a history of deep vein thrombosis should avoid of use nattokinase. You have coagulation disorders or are currently using an anticoagulant drug. You take aspirin daily: Nattokinase may increase its effects and lead to excessive bleeding.

What medications does vitamin K2 interfere with? ›

Vitamin K can have a serious and potentially dangerous interaction with anticoagulants such as warfarin (Coumadin®), as well as phenprocoumon, acenocoumarol, and tioclomarol, which are commonly used in some European countries [7,8].

What fruit has the most vitamin K? ›

Fruits generally don't contain as much vitamin K1 as leafy green vegetables, but a few provide decent amounts.
  1. Blackberries — 12% of the DV per serving. ...
  2. Blueberries — 12% of the DV per serving. ...
  3. Pomegranate — 12% of the DV per serving. ...
  4. Figs (dried) — 6% of the DV per serving. ...
  5. Tomatoes (sun-dried) — 4% of the DV per serving.

Does apple cider vinegar have K2? ›

No. Vitamin K2 is produced by bacteria in the intestinal tract and found in fermented foods and in animal products.

Which cheese has the highest K2? ›

The highest levels of vitamin K2 are found in Raclette, Vacherin Fribourgeois and Emmentaler. The consumption of Swiss cheese can cover an average 13–17% of the daily vitamin K requirement. Traditional cheese dishes such as raclette and fondue actually provide amounts in excess of the daily requirement.

Can too much vitamin K2 cause blood clots? ›

A sudden change in the amount of vitamin K you get can cause dangerous bleeding (if you consume less) or blood clots (if you consume more).

Can too much vitamin K2 be harmful? ›

There are no known serious side effects from taking too much vitamin K2. However, it is sensible to stick to the recommended intake.

Does K2 raise blood pressure? ›

If you suffer from high blood pressure or have naturally high blood plasma volume levels, vitamin K-2 supplementation may increase your risk of developing hypertension and cardiovascular disease due to an over-thickening of your blood.

Does vitamin K2 reverse osteoporosis? ›

One Japanese study found that a daily intake of low-dose vitamin K2 significantly improved vertebral BMD in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, but there were no significant changes in BMD among postmenopausal women without osteoporosis.

What is the best K2 for osteoporosis? ›

Better Bone Health with High-Dose Vitamin K2

High-dose vitamin K2, in the form of MK-4, has been used in Japan for decades as a treatment for osteoporosis. Human trials have shown that daily intake of 45 mg of vitamin K2 (MK-4) maintains or increases bone density and cuts the risk of fractures.

What is the best ratio of Vitamin D3 to K2? ›

How much K2 should I take with D3? Taking a Vitamin D3 supplement without K2 can have disastrous effect, as Vitamin D creates need for Vitamin K2 in the body. As a guide, you should take 45mcg of Vitamin K2 per 1000 IU of Vitamin D3.

How is K2 best absorbed? ›

Less is known about the absorption of vitamin K2. Yet experts believe that because K2 is often found in foods that contain fat, it may be better absorbed than K1 ( 2 ). This is because vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin. Fat-soluble vitamins are much better absorbed when eaten with dietary fat.

Does K2 affect estrogen? ›

Subsequent experiments showed that vitamin K2 binds 17beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4 and decreases the intracellular estradiol:estrone ratio, which resulted in the inhibition of the amount of estrogen receptor alpha-binding to its target DNA.

How many drops of vitamin D3 K2 should I take daily? ›

Common dosing for vitamin D3 is 1000 iu daily (1 drop of Liquid Vitamin D3/K2), but if a person is very deficient, we may recommend 5000 iu daily or higher. Consult your physician before supplementing with vitamin D. Vitamin D sufficiency is more important for bone health than high calcium intake.

Can you overdose on vitamin K2? ›

Vitamin K toxicity is extremely rare. The only reported toxicity comes from menadione, which has no use in humans. Its toxicity is thought to be associated with its water-soluble properties. When toxicity does occur, it manifests with signs of jaundice, hyperbilirubinemia, hemolytic anemia, and kernicterus in infants.

Is 2000 IU of vitamin D3 too much? ›

Mayo Clinic recommends that adults get at least the RDA of 600 IU. However, 1,000 to 2,000 IU per day of vitamin D from a supplement is generally safe, should help people achieve an adequate blood level of vitamin D, and may have additional health benefits.

How much vitamin D3 is too much? ›

The safe upper limit of intake is set at 4,000 IU per day. Intake in the range of 40,000–100,000 IU per day (10–25 times the recommended upper limit) has been linked with toxicity in humans.

What time should I take D3 and K2? ›

Unlike water-soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins – vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E, and vitamin K2 – need a source of fat to support absorption. As such, you need to take them with a fat-containing meal or snack.

How many units of D3 should I take daily? ›

The recommended daily amount of vitamin D is 400 international units (IU) for children up to age 12 months, 600 IU for people ages 1 to 70 years, and 800 IU for people over 70 years.

Should you take D3 without K2? ›

We ALWAYS recommend taking vitamin D with vitamin K2 if you are supplementing. Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin Vitamin D increases calcium levels in the body. Vitamin K helps the body use calcium by shuttling it to your bones.

Is 5000 IU of vitamin D too much? ›

In summary, long-term supplementation with vitamin D3 in doses ranging from 5000 to 50,000 IUs/day appears to be safe.

How much vitamin D is too much vitamin D? ›

The safe upper limit of intake is set at 4,000 IU per day. Intake in the range of 40,000–100,000 IU per day (10–25 times the recommended upper limit) has been linked with toxicity in humans.

Which two vitamins pose the greatest risk of toxicity? ›

The fat-soluble vitamins A and D are the most likely to cause toxicity symptoms if you consume them in high amounts.

Does vitamin K2 clear arteries? ›

Scientifically reviewed by Dr. Gary Gonzalez, MD, in May 2022. Written by: Jennifer Ming. In a new study, scientists have presented powerful evidence that vitamin K2 can reduce the progression of atherosclerosis, the “blockage” of the arteries that can lead to heart attacks and strokes.

Can vitamin K2 cause blood clots? ›

Since the primary deficiency disease associated with vitamin K is bleeding due to impaired blood clotting, it is often thought that high intake of vitamin K may increase thrombosis risk. This is evidently not true.

Does K2 remove calcium deposits from arteries? ›

In the groups receiving high-dose vitamin K1 or K2 (MK-4), not only was there no further arterial calcium accumulation, there was a 37% reduction of previously accumulated arterial calcification after six weeks. After 12 weeks, there was a 53% reduction in accumulated arterial calcium deposits.

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